Machine learning is defined and distinguished in different learning techniques and implements by different types of machine learning algorithms.
It is the science of data and mathematical implementation to builds a system and train data to make the right decision from predicted outputs.
The specific types of machine learning problems need the selected type of data and you can choose machine learning techniques based on available data.
Important Types of Machine Learning
Following are the four most important types of machine learning massively use to develop data science and AI applications.
1. Supervised Learning
Supervised learning and modeling have a very simple approach and massive use in any type of industry as you know today’s everyone uses the internet.
It is easily used and implement for labels and known data to develop a predictive model for finding the future prediction from past data.
The supervised modeling learns and forecasts the output only when the input variables are available and those are mostly labeled variables.
The bias-variance tradeoff, Dimensionality of the input space, Heterogeneity of the data, Function complexity, Redundancy in the data, amount of training data, Noise in the output variables, non-linearities, Presence of interactions, etc. are the challenges in supervised learning.
Two Types of Supervised Learning
Supervised learning depends on the machine learning algorithms that need well-prepared data with dependent (y) and independent variables (x) with required features (variables) for analysis.
following supervised learning, categories divide the labeled data into two sections like numeric and non-numeric (categorical) for accurate modeling and analysis.
Regression modeling is a supervised machine learning technique use for numerical input variables to predict the desired output from data.
The regression technique implements on data to find the best fit relationship between independent and dependent variables.
The essential goal of regression analysis is to predict an output from numerical data like stock market data, sports score, sales data. etc.
Following are the few example of regression techniques:
- Linear Regression
- Ridge Regression
- Lasso Regression
- Polynomial Regression
- Elastic Net Regression
Classification modeling is the supervised machine learning technique used to classify the data in two or multiple classes.
It needs qualitative data or categorical data to train the model to classification the data points in two of multiple categories.
Classification can be applied to the target variable (output) which should have classes like 0-1, yes-no, good-bad, etc. based on these classes of data the input variable gets classify.
Classification analysis contains various types of algorithms and each algorithm get selected for classification based on available business problem and data.
Following are the different classification algorithms use for multiple problems of data:
- Logistic Regression
- Decision Tree
- Random Forest
- KNN (K-nearest neighbor)
- Naive Bayes
- Support vector machine
Application of Supervised Learning
Face detection or recognition is the supervised ML technique utilize for finding Objects in real scenes, getting the facial expressions, and finding the Facial identities from image or video data.
The supervised techniques create and train the analytical model of label multimedia data to understand the Spoken words from audio and face movements, finding the faces, and guessing the identities from photos.
It is the classification process for text classification to classify the multiple texts from data to get the multiple sentiments from data.
Another application of classification is spam classification, credit card fraud detection, Medical diagnosis, language translation, etc.
2. Semi-Supervised Learning
The semi-supervised learning process implements the data modeling on tiny label data and a huge quantity of unlabeled data to train the machine learning model.
It is the combination or subset of both supervised and unsupervised learning that can practice working on composite and hybrid modeling on diverse types of data.
The practice of semi-supervised techniques is enhancing newly because the extensive quantities of unlabeled and unstructured data are producing every day from the Internet.
This training service allows transductive learning by suggesting a classification rule on input data, and it can implement algorithm techniques for interchangeably practice of transduction or induction learning.
This learning technique can implement use a few methods like Heuristic approaches, Generative models, Graph-based methods, Low-density separation, etc. on complex data.
Application of Semi Supervised Learning
Text Document Classifier:
It is the application of semi-supervised learning it contains many documents with small labeled data and a huge amount of unlabeled text data. the text data get classify easily with help of unsupervised learning techniques.
Sensor data Analysis:
The sensor generates a high amount of unstructured data which is mostly unlabeled that needs to analyzed using unsupervised modeling like clustering to get the important groups of data and supervised learning used here to classify the gathered group. so we can say that sensor data analysis is the best example of semi-supervised learning.
3. Unsupervised Learning
Unsupervised learning is the learning process for unknown and unlabeled data to gather the user pattern and grouping the complex data for decision.
Unsupervised learning is the rapidly growing machine learning technique in the era of internet business and digital marketing.
It contains techniques like clustering, hierarchical clustering, Principal component analysis, Exploratory data analysis, etc. which apply to a huge amount of anonymous data to get a valid pattern and correct analysis.
Researchers in past thought that clustering is the only technique for unsupervised learning but recently it is massively used for EDA, hierarchical analysis, customer churn management, and other semi-supervise learning application.
The aim of unsupervised learning is complicated but its major use to create internal modeling and analysis of reinforcement and supervises learning.
Application of Unsupervised Learning
Customer Churn Analysis:
Unsupervised learning is used to create a different group of clusters for every customer and product based on transaction data.
It builds a pattern from unlabeled data like customer behavior, transaction location, interest, amount, etc.
Cybersecurity data contain a huge amount of daily activity of internet users where unsupervised learning use to cluster the data based on location or find the user activities for data.
The location data shows the daily transaction, religion, population, business, and other crucial information about people that is hard to gather and analyze.
An unsupervised learning algorithm like K-means clustering and hierarchical clustering helps to find the relevant groups using the Euclidian distance formula.
4. Reinforcement Learning
Reinforcement Learning is the algorithm technique in machine learning that enables the system or bot to learn from experiences and actions.
Every action and experience is recorded as a reward (New Updated actions) for the learning agent to improve the actions with the help of trial and error.
The main goal of every single reward and feedback to improve the output and learning behaviors of the agent to generate better rewards in the future from every action.
Reinforcement learning is showing few difficulties while learning a Machine Learning model that can be related to data or training model.
Sometimes the action data (rewards) get inaccurate or typically delayed which generates difficulties in learning a bot.
A huge amount of tensor data carries more information that produces more rewards than vector and scalar whereas A scalar generates a reward with a piece of less information.
Application of Reinforcement Learning
Robotics: Reinforcement learning is originally invented and mostly implements for Artificial intelligence and robotics application.
RL techniques allow the developer to building a high-end robotics engine to perform actions like humans.
Games: The gaming industry is massively growing because of its highly interactive and rapidly optimizing functionality of modern games.
The developer uses Deep-RL models to creates the fastest learning agents in gaming environments to build more fascinating experiences.
Online Recommendations: In the modern application and media industry the Reinforcement learning used Deep-RL to generate the personalized recommendation of news and media contents to the consumers.
In summary, Machine Learning is the fastest-growing field of AI and data science, and these Types of Machine Learning are widely used for a variety of applications.
Choosing any type of machine learning technique for research and study can be the best option for the fastest-growing IT industry.
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Nitin is a professional data Engineer, Who has a Post Graduation in Data Science and Analytics and working in the healthcare sector. Experts in Data analysis, Machine learning, AI, blockchain, Data related tools, and technologies. He is the Co-founder and editor of analyticslearn.com